Based on our very productive meeting in Delft and out of the necessity to deliver definitions necessary for the whole group, we have developed this new section allowing you to comment on the tentative definitions that were shared among us before . We urge you to contribute by either adding a comment that you agree with a given definition, or add an alternative if you have ideas how definitions should be altered. Please do so by mid September (Deadline: September 16th 2016). Working group 1 will then make a revision of the definitions, and upload these.
We depend on your contribution, and look very much forward to it. We are strong as a group. Let us live up to this challenge.
Definitions of multidisciplinarity vary. It is clear that multidisciplinary research spans different disciplines but not that it necessarily integrates work from different disciplines, thich thus do not have a clear exchange with each other. It is however not uncommon that scholars use multidiscplinary and interdisciplinary interchangeably.
Definitions of interdisciplinary vary. It is clear that this is research that spans across different disciplines and may create interaction between these different disciplines, and these disciplines may opt for a clear integration or collaboration. In addition, these can have common goals and aims, or collaborate on the creation of joint solutions. While some researchers recognize the relevance of extra-academic knowledge here, we propose that this is not essential.
Definitions of transdisciplinarity vary. It is clear that this is research that spans across different disciplines and knowledge domains, and may create interaction between these different disciplines, and these disciplines may opt for a clear integration or collaboration. In addition, these can have common goals and aims, or collaborate on the creation of joint solutions. Extra-academic knowledge is often seen as important in transdisciplinary research, and may serve as the main distinguishing factor compared to interdisciplinarity, although there is no consensus about this.
Integration is an abundantly used principle which describes how different models and frameworks, data sources, analyses and combine results between different knowledge domains. It is unclear at which level of research or a project integration is ideally realized, or if it necessary at all stages. Integration can aid unity and coherence within a project or research group.
This notion would demand that disciplines can be ranked across a continuous of not continuous typology. An example of this would be different forms of knowledge, i.e. academic vs. Extra-academic knowledge. If this is possible, contrasting disciplines can be choosen according to the identified problems to solve and objectives to achieve.
Individuals have different perspectives, and groups of individuals often share a set of perspectives based on a shared mindset or background. The frictions between these groups that are characterized by specific perspectives can be termed as barriers. Integrated perspectives can be helpful in order to gain diverse perspectives.
Target knowledge refers to the scope of action and problem-solving measures given by the natural constraints, social laws, norms and values within the system, and the interests of actors and their individual intentions (Jahn, 2008). Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of desired target states, potential risks and benefits under prevailing uncertainties is needed. Thereby target knowledge determines the plausible system development (ProClim, 1997).