Intensity of involvement of extra-academics

The category intensity of involvement includes four types: information (i), consultation (ii), collaboration (iii) and empowerment (iv) (Kruetli et al., 2010). The first two refer to one-way communication between academia and practice actors. “Information” (i) is restricted to participation which contains a limited degree of commitments and potential influencing power for the public. In addition to that “consultation” (ii) describes a one-directional information flow, from the practice actor to the academia mainly retained by e.g. questionnaires and interviews. “Collaboration” (iii) is used to describe higher levels of involvement in which the participants have notable influence on the process and the outcome (e.g. binding rules, competences). “Empowerment” (iv) presents the highest level of involvement in which the authority to decide implement and monitor has been given to the public or they are directly involved in the decision-making process at the collaboration level, this can be also partly made parallel by forms of partnership between knowledge domains (after Brandt et al. 2013)